Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Intravenous Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Healthy Adult Subjects Following Single and Multiple Ascending Doses

The pharmacokinetics and safety of ceftolozane, a novel cephalosporin, and tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor, alone and in combination as a 2:1 ratio in single doses of up to 2,000 and 1,000 mg of ceftolozane and tazobactam, respectively, and multiple doses of up to 3,000 and 1,500 mg of ceftolozane and tazobactam, respectively, per day were … Continued

Pharmacokinetics of Injectable, Long-acting Nevirapine for HIV Prophylaxis in Breastfeeding Infants

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 remains a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO recommendations advise the administration of a once-daily, oral, prophylactic regimen of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine (NVP) from birth until four to six weeks of age for infants born to HIV-infected mothers in regions without access to safe and … Continued

Activities of Ceftazidime and Avibactam Against β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Hollow-fiber Pharmacodynamic Model

Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that is currently undergoing phase 3 clinical trials in combination with ceftazidime. Ceftazidime is hydrolyzed by a broad range of β-lactamases, but avibactam is able to inhibit the majority of these enzymes. The studies described here attempt to provide insight into the amount of avibactam required to suppress … Continued

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling to Determine the Human Dose of ST-246(R) to Protect Against Smallpox

Although smallpox has been eradicated, the United States government considers it a “material threat” and has funded the discovery and development of potential therapeutic compounds. As reported here, the human efficacious dose for one of these compounds, ST-246, was determined using efficacy studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs), together with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis that predicted … Continued

Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole Administered Concomitantly with Fluconazole and Population-based Simulation for Sequential Use

In clinical practice, antifungal therapy may be switched from fluconazole to voriconazole; such sequential use poses the potential for drug interaction due to cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19)-mediated inhibition of voriconazole metabolism. This open-label, randomized, two-way crossover study investigated the effect of concomitant fluconazole on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in 10 subjects: 8 extensive metabolizers and 2 poor … Continued

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of TBR-652, a Novel CCR5 Antagonist, in HIV-1-Infected, Antiretroviral Treatment-experienced and CCR5 Antagonist-naive Patients

TBR-652 is a novel CCR5 antagonist with potent in vitro anti-HIV activity. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TBR-652 in HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral treatment-experienced, CCR5 antagonist-naive patients. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-escalating study of TBR-652 monotherapy given once daily orally for 10 days was performed followed by … Continued

Mode of Action of Ranbezolid Against Staphylococci and Structural Modeling Studies of Its Interaction with Ribosomes

Oxazolidinones are known to inhibit protein biosynthesis and act against a wide spectrum of gram-positive bacteria. A new investigational oxazolidinone, ranbezolid, inhibited bacterial protein synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In S. epidermidis, ranbezolid showed inhibition of cell wall and lipid synthesis and a dose-dependent effect on membrane integrity.  

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