Development of a Permeability-limited Model of the Human Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) to Integrate Known Physiological and Biological Knowledge: Estimating Time Varying CSF Drug Concentrations and Their Variability Using In Vitro Data

A 4-compartment permeability-limited brain (4Brain) model consisting of brain blood, brain mass, cranial and spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments has been developed and incorporated into a whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model within the Simcyp Simulator. The model assumptions, structure, governing equations and system parameters are described. The model in particular considers the anatomy and … Continued

A Framework for Assessing Inter-individual Variability in Pharmacokinetics Using Virtual Human Populations and Integrating General Knowledge of Physical Chemistry, Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics: A Tale of “Bottom-up” vs. “Top-down” Recognition of Covariates

An increasing number of failures in clinical stages of drug development have been related to the effects of candidate drugs in a sub-group of patients rather than the ‘average’ person. Expectation of extreme effects or lack of therapeutic effects in some subgroups following administration of similar doses requires a full understanding of the issue of … Continued

CYP2D6 is Primarily Responsible for the Metabolism of Clomiphene

Clomiphene is a first line treatment for anovulation, a common cause of infertility. Response to clomiphene is variable and unpredictable. Tamoxifen is structurally related to clomiphene, and also shows considerable variation in response. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are major contributors to the metabolism of tamoxifen. The aim of the present work was to define the role … Continued

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