Brain Extracellular γ-hydroxybutyrate Concentrations are Decreased by L-lactate in Rats: Role in the Treatment of Overdoses

L-lactate represents a potential treatment for GHB overdose by inhibiting GHB renal reabsorption mediated by monocarboxylate transporters. Our objective was to assess the dose-dependence of L-lactate treatment, with and without D-mannitol, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD). Rats were administered GHB 600 mg/kg i.v. with L-lactate (low and high doses), D-mannitol, or L-lactate (low dose) with D-mannitol. GHB-induced … Continued

Physiologically-based Modeling of Pravastatin Transporter-mediated Hepatobiliary Disposition and Drug-drug Interactions

To develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict the pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions (DDI) of pravastatin, using the in vitro transport parameters. In vitro hepatic sinusoidal active uptake, passive diffusion and canalicular efflux intrinsic clearance values were determined using sandwich-culture human hepatocytes (SCHH) model. PBPK modeling and simulations were implemented in Simcyp® (Sheffield, UK). … Continued

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Methylprednisolone Effects on iNOS mRNA Expression and Nitric Oxide During LPS-induced Inflammation in Rats

Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) resulting in nitric oxide elevation represents an important component of inflammatory responses. We assess the effects of methylprednisolone (MPL) on these processes during endotoxin-induced acute inflammation and provide a mechanism-based model to quantitatively describe them. Male Lewis rats were dosed with lipopolysaccharide (50 µg/kg LPS) alone or … Continued

Fluorescence Imaging of the Lymph Node Uptake of Proteins in Mice after Subcutaneous Injection: Molecular Weight Dependence

To use noninvasive fluorescence imaging to investigate the influence of molecular weight (MW) of proteins on the rate of loss from a subcutaneous (SC) injection site and subsequent uptake by the draining lymph nodes in mice. Bevacizumab (149 kDa), bovine serum albumin (BSA, 66 kDa), ovalbumin (44.3 kDa) or VEGF-C156S (23 kDa), labeled with the … Continued

Subcutaneous Absorption of Monoclonal Antibodies: Role of Dose, Site of Injection, and Injection Volume on Rituximab Pharmacokinetics in Rats

To determine the effect of dose, the anatomical site of injection, and the injection volume on subcutaneous absorption of rituximab in rats and to explore absorption mechanisms using pharmacokinetic modeling. Rituximab serum concentrations were measured following intravenous and subcutaneous administration at the back, abdomen, and foot of rats. Several pharmacokinetic models were developed that included … Continued

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic Disease Progression Model for Effect of Etanercept in Lewis Rats with Collagen-induced Arthritis

The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic disease progression (PK/PD/DIS) model to characterize the effect of etanercept in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression. The CIA rats received either 5 mg/kg intravenous (IV), 1 mg/kg IV, or 5 mg/kg subcutaneous (SC) etanercept at day 21 post-disease induction. Effect on … Continued

Systems Pharmacology: Bridging Systems Biology and (PK/PD)

Mechanistic PKPD models are now advocated not only by academic and industrial researchers, but also by regulators. A recent development in this area is based on the growing realisation that innovation could be dramatically catalysed by creating synergy at the interface between Systems Biology and PKPD, two disciplines which until now have largely existed in … Continued

The Use of Clinical Trial Simulation to Support Dose Selection: Application to Development of a New Treatment for Chronic Neuropathic Pain

Pregabalin is being evaluated for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Two phase 2 studies were simulated to determine how precisely the dose that caused a one-point reduction in the pain score could be estimated. The likelihood of demonstrating at least a one-point change for each available dose strength was also calculated. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model … Continued

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