Phase 1 Study Assessing the Pharmacokinetic Profile and Safety of Avibactam in Patients with Renal Impairment

Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor intended for use as a fixed-dose combination with ceftazidime for the treatment of certain serious Gram-negative infections. As avibactam is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine, renal impairment may affect its pharmacokinetics. This Phase 1 study investigated the effect of renal impairment and hemodialysis on avibactam pharmacokinetics and safety. … Continued

More Power to OATP1B1: An Evaluation of Sample Size in Pharmacogenetic Studies Using a Rosuvastatin PBPK Model for Intestinal, Hepatic, and Renal Transporter-mediated Clearances

Rosuvastatin is a substrate of choice in clinical studies of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1- and OATP1B3-associated drug interactions; thus, understanding the effect of OATP1B1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin is crucial. Here, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was coupled with a power calculation algorithm to evaluate the influence of sample size on the ability to … Continued

Short-term Efficacy Reliably Predicts Long-term Clinical Benefit in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials as Demonstrated by Model-based Meta-analysis

The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between short-term and long-term treatment effects measured by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 responses and to assess the feasibility of predicting 6-month efficacy from short-term data. A rheumatoid arthritis (RA) database was constructed from 68 reported trials. We focused on the relationship between … Continued

Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analyses from a 4-Month Intra-dose Escalation and Its Subsequent 12-month Dose Titration Studies for a Human Monoclonal Anti-FGF23 Antibody (KRN23) in Adults with X-linked Hypophosphatemia

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is an inherited metabolic bone disease with abnormally elevated serum FGF23 resulting in low renal maximum threshold for phosphate reabsorption, low serum phosphate (Pi) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with subsequent development of short stature and skeletal deformities. KRN23 is a novel human anti-FGF23 antibody for the treatment of XLH. The pharmacokinetics (PK) … Continued

Incorporating In Vitro Information on Drug Metabolism into Clinical Trial Simulations to Assess the Effect of CYP2D6 Polymorphisms on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Dextromethorphan as a Model Application

In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of clearance, embedded in a clinical trial simulation, was used to investigate differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dextromethorphan between CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizer phenotypes. Information on the genetic variation of CYP2D6, as well as the in vitro metabolism and pharmacodynamics of dextromethorphan and its active metabolite dextrorphan, was … Continued

Population Pharmacokinetics of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Healthy Volunteers, Subjects with Varying Degrees of Renal Function and Patients with Bacterial Infections

Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin and a β-lactamase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of complicated urinary tract (cUTI) and intra-abdominal (cIAI) infections and nosocomial pneumonia. The population pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane/tazobactam were characterized in healthy volunteers, subjects with varying degrees of renal function, and patients with cIAI or cUTI. Serum concentration data from 376 … Continued

Population Dose-response Analysis of Daily Seizure Count Following Vigabatrin Therapy in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Refractory Complex Partial Seizures

Vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) and is used as an adjunctive therapy for adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS). The purpose of this investigation was to describe the relationship between vigabatrin dosage and daily seizure rate for adults and children with rCPS and identify relevant covariates that might … Continued

Meropenem in Children Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Clinical Trial Simulations Using Realistic Covariates

Meropenem is frequently prescribed in children receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Fluid overload is often present in critically ill children and affects drug disposition. The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model to 1) evaluate target attainment of meropenem dosing regimens against P. aeruginosa in children receiving CRRT and 2) estimate … Continued

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